P2 6.1

  • State what is meant by a radioactive substance and describe the types of radiation emitted
  • Describe the origins of background radiation
  • Explain how radioactive materials were discovered

P2 6.2
  • Describe Rutherford’s gold leaf scattering experiment and the evidence it produced
  • Explain how this evidence led to the nuclear model of the atom
  • Draw and explain the path of alpha particles scattered by a nucleus

P2 6.3
  • State the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus of an atom, given its atomic and mass numbers
  • Write nuclear decay equations to represent alpha or beta decay given appropriate data

P2 6.4
  • Describe the penetrating power, range, relative ionizing power of ionizing radiations and how they are affected by electric and magnetic fields
  • Evaluate which radiation would be most dangerous inside the body
  • Explain why radiation is so dangerous to cells

P1 6.5
  • Explain the term half-life in relation to the activity of a radioactive source
  • Determine the half-life of a source from a graph or table of data

P2 6.6
  • Describe how a beta source can be used to measure the thickness of a material
  • Describe how radioactive tracers are used and evaluate the properties of an isotope which make it a good tracer
  • Describe how radioactive isotopes can be used to determine the age of a rock or organic material